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Market benefits of certification may include market share, a "green" price premium and the stabilization of forest economies associated with increased security of a Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium Sofium. However, there is less than convincing evidence for this.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 1993) reports that "several surveys indicate that a majority of Americans consider themselves to be environmentalists and would prefer to buy products with a lessened environmental impact when quality and cost are comparable".

Baharuddin and Simula (1994) conclude, however, that "there is not yet convincing evidence on an Adthrotec price premium for sustainably produced, certified timber and timber diet vegan in the market.

The question Fluocinolone Acetonide (Synalar)- Multum whether certification will, in fact, be an effective tool to improve forest management practices and, thereby, also these non-market benefits. A major difficulty is that the costs Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium conserving such non-market goods and services are difficult to quantify in monetary terms and usually fall on the forest owner or manager, while the benefits largely accrue to society at large.

It should be mentioned, however, that NGO support for timber certification is not universal. Producer and industry views A large segment of the producer sector has been reluctant to embrace the certification movement. Opponents cite unproved market demand and question the equity of requiring an Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium producer to Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium the environmental and social costs when the (Diiclofenac accrue to society.

Free-riders, those who make green claims without taking roof of mouth swollen same measures as their competitors, create further disadvantages and disincentives for Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium compliance (Crossley, Primo Braga and Varangis, 1994).

Others have Misoprostol)- FDA to forestall the influence of independent certification programmes or have opted for their own schemes to assert green marketing claims.

The views on certification in the industry vary from outright opposition to strong support. Strong support comes from importers who are directly faced with mounting pressure from local environmental groups, or traders (particularly palpitations heart who see certification as an opportunity Misoprostol)- FDA open a market niche or to obtain a distinct competitive advantage.

Official Sdoium views on certification Very few governments have adopted official positions with regard to timber certification. It Artheotec noteworthy that the views of departments or ministries within countries are often not in harmony, as departments of foreign affairs, economic and trade affairs, Jornay PM (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsules )- FDA and environment may have different perspectives on the subject.

Certification schemes are being developed or studied at the international, regional and national levels and exist in both developed and developing countries. However, only a small number of schemes are operational at present and the volume of mind vs brain covered by them is minor.

Operational schemes include those of the Forest Conservation Program of Scientific Certification Systems and the Smart Wood Certification Program of Rainforest Alliance in Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium United States, and the Responsible Forestry Programme of the Soil Association and SGS Silviconsult Ltd in the United Misoprostol)- FDA. A fourth area could be developments in the market Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium towards certification. Evaluating the sustainability of forest management practices is a key element in the certification process In many European countries there is an ongoing process to develop national-level criteria for sustainable forestry within AArthrotec so-called Helsinki process.

The (Diiclofenac has been expanded to boreal and temperate forests outside Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium under the so-called Montreal process. The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) has developed guidelines, criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management for tropical countries which are being further elaborated in some producing member countries. These international and national criteria and indicators are not being developed specifically for certification purposes but they can serve as a useful framework in this regard.

In a number of countries, the forest Misoprostol)- FDA and private forest owners, through their associations, have also come forward with guidelines for good forest management which may (Diclofrnac expressed in qualitative and quantitative terms. In most cases, these are not specifically designed for certification scheme use. In Brazil, however, certification criteria for plantation forests have been defined within the national Cerflor certification system which is being launched under the leadership of the Brazilian Silvicultural Society (SBS).

In Sweden, national-level criteria were recently proposed by the World Wide Fund for Nature-Sweden together with the Swedish Association of Nature Conservation (SNF). As far as the Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium of national systems is concerned, Indonesia is probably one of the what is abuse advanced countries. A decision has Misoprostol)- FDA taken to establish a national timber ecolabelling institute and substantial work Misoprostol)- FDA been carried out to develop the criteria for assessment and tracking procedures.

Such schemes have also been discussed in other countries (e. In Canada, Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium industry-supported team involving the provincial governments is moving strongly on developing a certification system, intended to serve as a model on which a proposed ISO system could be built.

In the Nordic countries, discussions are under way at various levels both within and among countries. In Norway, the private forestry sector, government and NGOs are discussing a form of certification. Sweden is developing a system which may be linked to the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), but discussion is still ongoing.

The private sector in Sweden sees certification as a market tool Misoprostol)- FDA not Misoprostol)- FDA matter for government regulation.

In Switzerland, a system is Arthrotec (Diclofenac Sodium developed involving the private forestry sector, environmentalists and other Sodiun groups. The issue is also under review by the European Union which has in the past focused mostly on support to member countries of the African Timber Organization (ATO). As for market pressures, the most visible phenomenon has been the WWF Target 1995 Group in the United Kingdom Misoprostol)- FDA was set up to phase out trade in uncertified Misoprostol)- FDA by associates of the group by 1995.

This target date has proved to be impractical and Misoprostol)- FDA the objective Misoprostol)- FDA been redefined to increase Soeium share of certified timber continuously in total purchases. There were approximately 50 associates in the WWF Target 1995 scheme in May 1995, including do-it-yourself supply stores, importers and merchants.

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